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Psychology 532

Seminar in Cross-Cultural Counseling

Winter Quarter, 1996


Study Questions for
Counseling Across Cultures, 4th Edition

Chapter 1 - J. G. Draguns

1. Discuss Draguns' definition of culture.

2. Discuss C. H. Patterson's arguments against the idea of cross-cultural counseling.

3. How has the inclusion of cultural factors changed the definition of counseling as a process?

4. How has "counseling across cultures" changed in the last two decades?

5. Discuss Draguns' recommendations for how to bridge the culture gulf.

6. Compare and contrast the emic and etic approach to counseling across cultures.

7. Which of the four approaches suggested by Draguns do you find most appropriate for yourself?

8.. Discuss the process of culture accommodation in its positive and negative aspects.

9. To what extent is all counseling a "multicultural" process?

10. How does culture contribute to a client's concept of self in specificways?


Chapter 2 - C. R. Ridley, and D. W. Lingle

1.Is multiculturalism, by emphasizing the importance of cultural context, fourth force in counseling?

2. Describe what Ridley et al. mean by "cultural empathy?"

3. What are the various methods in which cultural empathy is communicated?

4.. How do cultural similarities and/or differences influence the empathy process?

5. Distinguish between empathy and sympathy in cross-cultural counseling.

6.Describe how you would use Ridley et al.'s model of cultural empathy.

7. Expand on Ridley et al.'s metaphor of counselors and podiatrists examining hurting feet.

8. Is establishing cultural empathy primarily a cognitive or an affective process?

9. Discuss the four response response modes Ridley et al.'s Dimensions of Empathy model.

10. Evaluate the specific level of your own cultural empathy counseling.


Chapter 3 - T. LaFromboise. S. Foster, and A. James

1. Discuss the examples of cultural bias in the APA Ethical Principles.

2. Has the APA 1992 Ethical Principles dealt with examples of cultural bias in previous versions of the ethical guidelines?

3.Discuss the problems of cultural bias in psychological research.

4. To what extent is the source of cultural bias in a function of' inadequate training?

5. Give an example of a counseling situation where the counselor would need to violate the ethical guidelines in order to be ethical.

6. Describe the more "relational" alternative approach suggested by Ivey to providing ethical guidelines.

7. Discuss the problems of ethical relativism as a solution to cultural bias.

8. How might one develop moral reasoning skills as a multicultural counselor?

9. Arc there universal ethical guidelines which could be applied across cultures?

10. What future developments are likely in constructing ethical guidelines that are not culturally biased?

Chapter 4 - L. S. Hansen and E. M. P. Gama

1. Why do Hansen and Gama consider gender a dimension of' culture?

2. Describe the description of multiculturalism as a "fourth force" in counseling.

3. What are some of the problems in multicultural counseling literature regarding its references to gender?

4. Discuss some of the stereotypes about gender in the literature.

5. Are gender roles changing and if so in what direction and with what consequences?

6. How have male roles changed over time and what are the consequences of those changes for counseling?

7. Should male and female roles be more similar or more different or both?

8. Discuss the six themes of feminist psychology by Worell and Etaugh as they relate to counseling.

9. Discuss the suggestions for counseling individuals with regard to gender issues by Hansen and Gama.

10. What research needs to be done on gender issues for multicultural counseling?


Chapter 5 - W. E. Cross and P. Fhagen-Smith

1.Explain the evolution of black identity issues in research from selfhatred to diverse, normative and deviant trends.

2. Compare the stages of Nigrescence with Erik Erikson's perspective on adolescent identity development.

3. How successful have been the attempts at pan-ethic theorizing about identity development?

4. How does the EID-Model predict an identity crisis for adloescents with poorly developed identities'?

5. How does the Cross (1971) version of the Cross Model differ from the Cross (1991) version?

6. Discuss the basic premise of Nigrescence Theory "that self-esteem and racial identity are highly correlated."

7. Describe the highest stage of ethnic identity development according to the different models.

8. Discuss the concept of "race salience" as used by Cross.

9. Discuss Parham's concept of "Nigrescence recycling" as it relates to the Cross Model.

10. Discuss the counseling implications for adaptive and maladaptive manifestations of black identify.


Chapter 6 - H. H. I,. Kitano and M. '['. Maki


1. Describe the immigration patterns of' Asians to America and explain why this is important for counselors.

2. Discuss the importance and relevance of traditional Asian values to counseling.

3. What does Kitano and Maki say about the primordialist and the circumstantialist view of ethnicity?

4. Discuss Kitano and Maki's guidelines for mental health professionals working with Asian Americans.

5. Why do research studies consistently document that Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders underutilize mental health services?

6. What problems are experienced by Asian American mental health professionals working with Asian American clients?

7. What are the counseling implications of increased intermarriage by Asian Americans?

8. Discuss how you would use the Kitano and Maki "Assimilation and Ethnic Identity" model in counseling.

9. Discuss future trends in counseling Asian Americans.

10. How do Asian Americans who do not use "professional services" deal with their personal problems?


Chapter 7 - J. M. Casas and M.J.T. Vasquez


1. What are the most significant trends in the Hispanic population as they relate to counseling?

2. Discuss the importance of diversity within the Hispanic-labeled population as it relates to counseling.

3. What have been some of the criticisms of existing research literature regarding Hispanics?

4. What must a counselor know before working successfully with Hispanic clients?

5. Describe assumptions in the counseling literature which might not apply to the Hispanic client.

6.  Discuss the evidence of cultural encapsulation by contemporary counselors.

7. What are the socioculturally relevant variables of the Hispanic population according to Casas and Vasquez?

8. Discuss the positive and negative features of acculturation for counseling Hispanics.

9. How adequately do the psychodynamic, humanistic and behavioral approaches relate to cross-cultural considerations according to Suinn?

10. Discuss the usefulness of preventive and developmental interventions for working with Hispanic clients.


Chapter 8 - J. E. Trimble, C. M. Fleming, F. Beauvais and P. J. Thurman


1. What are some unique characteristics of- Native American Indians in comparison with other cultural groups?

2. What mental health issues are more likely to occur among Native American Indians?

3. Describe the indigenous traditional approaches among Native American Indians for promoting mental health.

4. What are some guidelines for a non-indian counselor working with Native American Indians?

5. Discuss examples of value differences likely to come up between non- Indian counselors and Native American Indian clients.

6. Discuss examples of value differences likely to come up within Native American Indian clients.

7. Which counseling style would you expect to work best with Native American Indians and why?

8. Describe models of healing from the Native American Indian's perspective.

9. Why do Native American Indians underutilize mental health services?

10. Select one of the cases described in this chapter and indicate your treatment plan for counseling that client.


Chapter 9 - F. Leong and E. Chou


1. What are sonic of the unique problems that international students are assumed to experience?

2. Discuss the usefulness of the U-curve in describing culture shock among international students.

3. What are the most frequent sources of stress experienced by international students?

4. What factors have been able to predict successful adjustment by international students?

5. What has been the effect of acculturation among international students?

6. Discuss the important therapist variables in good counseling among international students.

7. What do international students say about counselors and the counseling process?

8. Why do international students underutilize mental health services?

9. Describe a counseling approach that is likely to be successful in working with international students.

10. What direction would you recommend for future research on counseling international students and why?


Chapter 10 - F. Bemak, R. Chung and T. Bornemann


1.How would counseling a voluntary migrant be different from counseling an involuntary migrant?

2. What are some of the ways that clinical interventions might be in conflict with societal values for refugees?

3. What are some of the reasons for underutilization of mental health services by refugees?

4. To what extent is acculturation a healthy process for refugees?

5. What are the factors influencing adaptation by refugees coming to the U.S.?

6. What are some predictable problems a refugee family might experience?

7. In what ways does economic self sufficiency both facilitate and frustrate the refugee's mental health?

8. Describe how you would use the Multi-Level Model approach to counseling refugees.

9. Describe the importance of "family" for refugees coming to the U.S.

10. What is the role of indigenous healing therapies for refugees in the U. S.?


Chapter 11 - J. Tanaka-Matsumi and H. N. Higginbotham

1.Contrast behavior modification approaches with the "disease model" of counseling across cultures.

2. Why do behavior therapists criticize the various editions of the diagnostic manual?

3. What are some of the unique advantages and disadvantages of behavioral counseling in cross-cultural settings?

4. Describe and evaluate Higginbothan's "negotiation as therapy" model with culturally different clients.

5. Discuss behavioral interventions according to Higginbothan's four criteria of a therapeutic system.

6. Discuss the reasons for failure in cross cultural counseling.

7. What are some ways a behavioral therapist can enhance her or his social influence?

8. How do behavior therapists respond to accusations of' unethical "control" in multicultural settings?

9. How well does behavior therapy work with international students?

10. Discuss how behavior therapy measures progress by the client's own behavioral baseline in multicultural settings.


Chapter 12 - W. J. Lonner and F. A. Ibrahim


1.Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative assessment in cross-cultural settings.

2. Evaluate the ways that Dana's model is more ethnic-sensitive than traditional psychological testing?

3. Describe the importance of "worldview" in cross-cultural assessment issues.

4. Evaluate the assessment of cultural identity according to stage-theory developmental models.

5. Discuss the problems associated with a quantitative assessment in cross-cultural settings.

6. Discuss the problems of establishing equivalence in cross-cultural assessments.

7. Defend your viewpoint on the assessment of cognitive abilities within and across cultures.

8. Discuss the adequacy of assessing personality and pathology across cultures.

9. What are the strengths and weaknesses of non-standardized and "context dependent" assessments in cross-cultural settings?

10. Discuss the future directions of assessment strategies across cultures.


Chapter 13. D. Sue and N. D. Sundberg

1.Give examples of how an underlying individualistic world view may bias psychological research across cultures.

2. Discuss the assumptions that have shaped cross-cultural research in counseling issues.

3. Discuss the culturally learned attitudes which prevent clients from some cultures getting counseling.

4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of matching clients with culturally-similar counselors?

5. Discuss the importance of empathy in cross-cultural counseling interviews.

6. What are the special problems that occur when the counselor is working with an interpreter?

7. Describe how counseling might be adapted and changed to work with different cultures.

8. What factors help predict receptivity to counseling among culturally different clients?

9. Discuss and document the importance of self-awareness for counseling across cultures.

10. What is the direction of cross-cultural counseling research in the future?