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Psychology 546

Seminar in Social Psychology

Social Psychological Networks and Analysis

Winter Quarter, 2012

Academic Instructional Center East 442

Tuesday, Thursday – 9:30 to 10:20 AM

Instructor: Joseph E. Trimble, PhD, Distinguished University Professor, Professor of Psychology.

Offices and Contact Information: Joseph E. Trimble, Ph.D. - AIC 594 (Telephone - 360.650.3058). Office hours will be discussed in class and posted on my office door.

Readings: Selected readings collected from journal articles and book chapters are listed below under each of the six topic areas. I will email you copies of all of the articles.

Required Textbook: (available in the Western Associated Students Bookstore or through an Internet book seller such as Amazon.com).

Recommended Textbooks:

Prerequisites: Admission to MS experimental psychology program and PSY 505; or permission of instructor.

Course Themes

“They say you are not you except in terms of (your) relation to other people. If there weren’t any other people there wouldn’t be any you because what you do, which is what you are, only has meaning in relation to other people.”

--Robert Penn Warren, All the King’s Men (cited in Knoke & Kuklinski, 1982)

“One touch of nature makes the whole world kin.”

--William Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida (1602)

“Amid the seeming confusion of our mysterious world, individuals are so nicely adjusted to a system, and systems to one another, that, by stepping outside for a moment, a man exposes himself to a fearful risk of losing his place forever.”

--Nathaniel Hawthorne, Wakefield (cited in Knoke & Kuklinski, 1982)

A group is a social unit consisting of a number of individuals who stand in role and status relationships with one another, stabilized in some degree at the time, and who possess a set of values and beliefs of their own regulating their behavior, at least in matters of consequence to the group.”

 --Muzafer and Carolyn Sherif, Social Psychology (1969, p. 131)

                Psychology 546 explores concepts and theories associated with social psychological networks and their analyses. According to the theory of social networks, behaviors of individuals are best understood in social contexts and relationships; that is, “Networks are present everywhere…because everything is connected to everything else” (Barabasi, 2003). Network researchers have developed a set of theoretical approaches that include: (1) focusing on relationships between actors rather than an actor’s attributes; (2) understanding mutual dependence by emphasizing individual responses or structures of behavior rather than relying on social phenomenon characterized by a structure made up of sharply distinct and independent individuals or units; and (3) understanding how the structure of relationships influences outcomes.

                Network analysts study relationships in contexts and how the patterns of interactions influence behavior and social change. Analysts use qualitative and quantitative procedures to explore the formation and nature of relationships in networks. In our seminar, we will explore the use of some of these methods, especially relational graphs. Some of the course topics will include: the small world problem and degrees of separation including the World Wide Web; tipping points and the influences of small numbers on major outcomes; the 80/20 rule; the outbreak of riots, epidemics, and rumors; the power of context; and decisions, delusions, and the madness of crowds.

Student and Course Learning Objectives

Upon successfully completing the course students will be able to:

Knowledge and Understanding

  1. Identify and describe the basic components of a “social network.”
  2. Discuss alternative conceptions of social networks and the role played by networks in influencing an individual’s behavior, world view, attitudes, and values.
  3. Recognize and explain how social network theories explain the influence of the Internet in everyday life and social networks. 
  4. Identify and explain at least three sociological and psychological theories that explain how individuals form relationships in social networks.
  5. Describe and illustrate basic social psychological principles individuals and their unique socio-cultural groups use to form and maintain social networks.
  6. Distinguish among a range of social network constructs and factors and explain the influence each have in the formation and maintenance of social networks.

Skills

  1. Analyze and critique scientific research articles that describe various social network topics.
  2. Design and construct graphs showing social network relationships for different types of groups such as dyads, triads, and cliques.
  3. In collaboration with others, design and collect a small-scale research project exploring selected characteristics, qualities, traits, or peculiarities associated with social networks.

Synthesis

  1. Reflect and write about social networks as they relate to your personal life's experiences.
  2. Identify and organize a range of social network constructs and theoretical elements and formulate a plan for use in assisting yourself and others in forming relationships with others.

Student Evaluation and Computer Activities

In addition to attending seminar sessions regularly and doing the reading, the course requires you to work through selected exploratory exercises and present the findings to the class, be responsible for leading discussions during selected class periods (may involve doing additional readings), prepare and submit definitions of social network terms due at the end of the quarter, and submit a small group research project report at the end of the quarter.

Several of the exploratory exercises may require you to make use of computer software to perform basic analyses on sets of social network data such as a sociogram.  You can use AGNA for your analysis if you choose to do so. AGNA (Applied Graph & Network Analysis) is a platform-independent application designed for scientists and researchers who employ specific mathematical methods, such as social network analysis, sociometry, and sequential analysis. Specifically, AGNA can assist in the study of communication relations in groups, organizational analysis and team building, kinship relations or behavioral laws of organization (see article by Benta, M. I. Studying communication networks with AGNA 2.1). You can download it at: http://www.tucows.com/preview/295919

Also, you’ll want to learn how to use Gephi as it compliments AGNA and other social network software. Gephi is an interactive visualization and exploration platform for all kinds of networks and complex systems, dynamic and hierarchical graphs. It runs
on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. Gephi is open-source and free. Go to: https://gephi.org/

The home site will allow you to download the software as well as provide you with an
instructive video on how to use it. We will have a demonstration provided us in class
during the second or third week.

Netvizz, a Facebook application, creates a .gdf file describing either your
personal network or the groups you are a member of, and let you import it into GUESS and Gephi.

There are, of course, many applications that let you visualize your network directly in Facebook but by being able to download a file, you can choose your own visualization tool, play around with it, select parameter layout algorithms, change colors and sizes,
rearrange by hand, and so forth.

Announcement: http://thepoliticsofsystems.net/2010/03/22/netvizz-facebook-to-gephi/
App: http://apps.facebook.com/netvizz/
Tutorial: http://blog.sociomantic.com/2010/05/using-netvizz-gephi-to-analyze-afacebook-
network/

Other software is available on-line for you to consider, although most of it is PC
driven at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network_analysis_software OR
http://www.insna.org/software/software_old.html. Also, for those of you who want to
learn more about the rapidly emerging field you may go to Facebook and read what
people are requesting and posting:
http://www.facebook.com/SocialNetworkAnalysis?filter=3.

Also, if you’re interested in constructing social networks from internet related texts you might want to look at Internet Community Text Analyzer (ICTA). ICTA is a web-based system for automated text analysis and discovery of social networks from electronic communication such as emails, forums, blogs and chats. Go to: http://textanalytics.net

Grading.  Grades will be based mainly on the conduct and quality of exercises, the mid-term written assignment, the final group research paper, and the group project report and presentation submitted at the end of the term, with greater emphasis on the latter. I will also factor in what I learn about your knowledge of network concepts and methods from discussions in class and observations about your work on the exploratory exercises.

Submission of work. Please submit electronic copies of all of your written work to my email address. However I will accept written assignments in hard copy form. I tend to use Turnitin to evaluate all submitted papers and assignments (see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turnitin).

Extensions and Incompletes.  No extensions are permitted on the definitions, final project papers, and exploratory exercises. Extensions for the final group research paper must be requested in advance and will be granted with reluctance. I strongly discourage you from taking incomplete grades in this course; as a rule, taking incompletes will unduly delay your progress through your undergraduate studies. While I realize that one often can produce a better research report by taking more time to produce it, it is usually preferable to produce a draft within a given time-frame, get commentary, and improve the work later through revision.

In summary, student performance in the seminar and achievement of the student learning outcomes will be evaluated using the following criteria:

In addition, by the end of the quarter, seminar participants must complete a portfolio containing:

  1. Definitions of social network terms, concepts, and theories (due the 10th week of the quarter) – 30 points. Due Friday, January 20th, at 5:00 P.M.
  2. One 15-20 minute oral presentation based on the content and theme of one or more of the selected readings for the course. Articles less than 3 pages are not eligible for this activity. Presentations begin the third week of the quarter – 20 points.
  3. Conduct short exercises and activities listed in the syllabus and submit a summary of your findings and analysis including figures if applicable – 60 points. Due dates are listed on the syllabus.
  4. One 10-12 page or more research paper dealing with an acceptable topic in the field. The activity includes a small group presentation on the research project including a group report following conventional APA research report writing protocols (the final report on the project is due on March 18th). Group size is limited to 2 or less – 75 Points. Due Friday, March 16th at 5:00 P.M.
  5. Weekly reading summary and questions activity– 45 points.
  6. Classroom participation in discussion of the readings and topics. – 10 points.

During the quarter you are to read several important articles, chapters, and sections of the assigned books; the readings and
assignments are listed for you in sections of this syllabus. After reading each article or assigned readings you will write a summary
of what you read, especially including any of your thoughts and observations about the information; this applies to all required
articles
assigned for the previous week, you may also include your summaries and reactions to the recommended readings. Your thoughts and observations are to be submitted to me on Monday by 5:00PM each week of the quarter beginning January 10th and ending March 9th. Attempt to summarize your observations and thoughts into 1-3 pages. I will carefully review your summaries and
observations and return them to you at the next seminar meeting. I may make comments in the margins to assist you in clarifying your observations and thoughts. In addition, students will submit 3 questions for discussion relevant to the week’s readings; questions are due to me on Monday and can be attached to the reading summary. The assignment is designed to get students thinking about the readings and as a way to stimulate discussion. The question format is open to interpretation. These questions may be about something you didn't understand in the reading, something you disagree with, possible connections to other phenomena, or something that might lead to interesting speculations.

Point distributions vary according to the criteria described in detail in the assessment rubrics prepared for this course; they will be distributed in class.

Final letter grades will be based on one’s total point accumulation at the end of the quarter. The point distribution is as follows:

A =      180-200

B =      160-179

C =      140-159

D =      120-139

F =       119 or less

Each paper and activity will be evaluated on several dimensions including the substantive and the mechanical (see Rubrics). The substantive dimension includes such features as writing style, evidence of considerable work expended, clarity, and ease of reading. The mechanical dimension includes such things as spelling, grammar, and proper sentence structure. Guidelines and criteria for both dimensions are available for student review and use. Students are required to follow the style guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) for every writing assignment. A guide for the APA style is available at - http://www.psywww.com/resource/apacrib.htm. Late papers will not be accepted.

Group Research Project. Working with your classmates, replicate a social network research study; you are free to make adjustments in the design and conduct of the study to suit your sampling needs and the conduct of the research. Graph your findings using one of the social network analysis software programs such as AGNA or Gephi. Present your findings in class accompanied with a write-up of your procedures, findings, and the graphs. You may choose to replicate one of the following studies or another one that suits your interests:

Schedule of Seminar Activities. The following outline contains the general topics and approximate time allotted for discussion and review of assigned readings. At times, it’s possible that guest lecturers will be invited to the seminar to present and discuss relevant and appropriate material intended to supplement seminar activities. Additionally, PowerPoint presentations will be used to complement discussions. The seminar is organized around six basic units and corresponding parts or sub-units. Assigned and recommended readings are listed for each section. Students should familiarize themselves with the outline and the weekly activities, read the material in advance of the class session, and be prepared to discuss the readings during class and record summaries and observations in the weekly summary paper. All articles and chapters will be distributed to you through your e-mail address.

Schedule of Seminar Activities

The following outline contains the general topics and approximate time allotted for discussion and review of assigned readings. At times, it’s possible that guest lecturers will be invited to the seminar to present and discuss relevant and appropriate material intended to supplement seminar activities. Additionally, PowerPoint presentations will be used to complement discussions. The seminar is organized around six basic units and corresponding parts or sub-units. Assigned and recommended readings are listed for each section. Students should familiarize themselves with the outline and the weekly activities, read the material in advance, and be fully prepared to discuss the readings during the seminar as well as record summaries and observations in the notebook.

Course Organization

WEEK

TOPICS AND THEMES

1 and 2 - Historical and theoretical foundations of social network analysis

What is the “connected age?” What are network data and what are the networks that generate them? An emphasis on principles, concepts, and fundamentals in the field.

Required readings:

-Barabasi. Chapters – The First Link, The Second Link.


-Kadushin, Chapters 2, 3, and 5.


-Hoffman, C. (2001). Introduction to sociometry. Retrieved December 9, 2005, from http://www.hoopandtree.org/sociometry.htm.


-Moreno, J. L., Jennings, H., & Stockton, R. (1943). Sociometry in the classroom. Sociometry 6(4), 425-428.


-Borgatti, S.P., Mehra, A., Brass, D. and Labianca, G. (2009). Network analysis in the social sciences.” Science, 323(5916), 892 – 895.

Recommended readings:

-Kirke, D.M. (2007). Social network analysis and psychological research. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 28(1-2), 53-61.


-Stevenson, W., Davidson, B., Manev, I., & Walsh, K. (1997). The small world of the university: A classroom exercise in the study of networks. Connections, 20(2), 23-33.


-Freeman, L.C. (2000). See you in the funny papers: Cartoons and social networks. Connections, 23(1), 32-42.

Activities:

               Construct your family network. Build the network by identifying all people within “four steps or degrees” of yourself based on the two primary kinship relations (“Parent of” and “spouse/partner of”), working in all directions. You can use any means you want – pen and paper is fine, or better yet PowerPoint. Before you start working through the list, estimate the number of people you will reach. After you have finished:
               1. How many people are included?
               2. Is your drawing legible?
               3. How many names did you not know?
               4. If you gave this to an “in-law” relation, do you think it would
                be accurate? If you have them, try to go out one more step
                on your “in-law” side (i.e. your in-law’s kids or your motherin-
                law’s siblings/parents)
               5. How many steps do you have to go before you run out of
                non-compound names for the relation? (i.e., “cousins”)
                Now think about the substantive relations embedded within this kinship
                network (don’t actually list answers for all of these, just think about them).
                Who here know each other well? How often do these people see each
                other? Talk to each other? Help each other. Working through the (living)
                people two-steps out:
               6. What proportion do you see at least 4 times a year?
               7. What proportion do you talk to on the phone at least 4 times a year?

To provide you with some guidelines and assistance you may want to read about Eco-Maps by searching the term and accessing: http://www.ehow.com/how_4897189_make-ecomap.html. Also, you may want to review information and the graphing tools for Genograms at: http://www.genopro.com/genogram/how-to-create/
Prepare a brief write-up describing your findings complete with a network diagram of the connections and relationships. Due Tuesday, January 17th.

Resources:

-Social Network Analysis. Go to: http://www.ire.org/sna/


-Social Network References (Academic Bibliography). A reasonably complete bibliography if you’re interested in reading the range of topics covered in the field. Go to: http://www.socialnetworks.org/


-Fluffschack (Google it, download it, and then “connect the nodes.”)


-Movie, Connected. Have you ever faked a restroom trip to check your email? Slept with your laptop? Or become so overwhelmed that you just unplugged from it all? In this funny, eye-opening, and inspiring film, director Tiffany Shlain takes audiences on an exhilarating rollercoaster ride to discover what it means to be connected in the 21st century. Go to: http://trailers.apple.com/trailers/independent/connected/


3 and 4 - visualizing social networks and their structural characteristics

The language of graph theory including such terms as paths, trails, walks, connectivity, dyads. triads, actors, egocentric and sociocentric. Additional topics to include: clusters, components, cores, group centralization, directional relations, power and exchange, sociograms, and examples for the “real world” for visualizing network patterns.

Required readings:

-Barabasi. Chapter - The Fifth Link.


-Kadushin, Chapters 2, 3, and 5.


-Burt, R.S. (2004). Structural holes and good ideas. American Journal of Sociology, 110(2), 349-399.

Recommended readings:

-Fowler, J.H., & Christakis, N.A. (2008). Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: Longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. BMJ, 337, 2338.


-Johns, D. (2011). Disconnected: We've heard that obesity and divorce can be passed from one person to another. Critics now wonder how the "social contagion" studies ever passed peer review. Slate.


-Freeman, L.C. (2000). Visualizing social networks. Journal of Social Structure, 1(1), 1-22, (Retrieved November 22, 2005 from http://www.cmu.edu/joss/content/articles/volume1/Freeman.html)

Activities:

               Exercise on Social Network Data on a Group of Friends.
Go to the following website and download/install ORA onto your computers: http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/projects/ora/software.php. Load the software on your PC. If you’re Mac user then you have to have virtual machine software such as Parallels installed. Collect some social network data on a group of friends. This can be your club, sport, friends from home, anything that has entities and relationships between them. Enter them into ORA using the following instructions (see
handout of further details). Due Tuesday, January 31st. The PowerPoint slides will serve as your
paper for the exercise.

Resources:

-Read about Graphs and Graph Theory (elementary). Go to:
http://www.c3.lanl.gov/mega-math/gloss/graph/gr.html


-Social network analysis software and related resources. Go to:
http://www.orgnet.com/index.html


-Inferring networks among legislators using legislative cosponsorships.
Papers and data available here:
http://jhfowler.ucsd.edu/cosponsorship.htm


5 and 6 - Social relationships and small worlds

We consider how stars, zones, hubs, connectors influence personal networks and their display. What influences thresholds, cascades, and their predictability? Also, we will discuss the factors that influence research and theory on small world phenomena (six degrees of separation).

Required readings:

-Barabasi. Chapters. The Third Link, The Fourth Link, The Fifth Link, The Fourteenth Link.


-Kadushin, Chapter 8.


-Kleinfeld, J.S. (2002). The small world problem, Society, 39, 61-66.


-Cacioppo, J.T., Fowler, J.H., Christakis, N.A. (2009). Alone in the crowd: The structure and spread of loneliness in a large social network. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(6), 977–991.


-Travers, J. & Milgram, S. An experimental study of the small world problem. Sociometry, 32, 425-443.


-Granovetter, M. (2003). Ignorance, knowledge, and outcomes in a small world. Science, 301, 773-774.

Recommended readings:   

-Korte, C. & Milgram, S. (1970). Acquaintance networks between racial groups – application of the small world method. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15(2), 101.


-Fountain, H. (2006). The lonely American just got a bit lonelier. The New York Times, July 2.

Resources

-Albert- Laszlo Barabasi’s Web site on Self-Organized Networks. Go to:
http://www.nd.edu/%7Enetworks/


-Linked by Albert- Laszlo Barabasi. A Visual Companion. Go to:
http://www.nd.edu/~networks/linked/photo.html- Small World Research Project developed by Duncan J. Watts at Columbia University. Go to:
http://smallworld.columbia.edu/


On the lighter side check out the following internet sites to learn more about networks:


-Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon: http://oracleofbacon.org/


-The Erdos Number: http://www.oakland.edu/enp/ (Check with one of the mathematics professors here and see if they know their Erdos Number and if they do, how did they derive it). Mine is 3 or 4 (and I don’t quite know why)!!


-Friendster: http://www.friendster.com/ (Friendster helps you stay connected with everything that matters to your friends and family). If you have a Facebook page you can visualize your “friends” with Touchgraph or Social Graph (Google the terms to see how to load them into your Facebook page). Also, try SPLASHSCORE at:
http://splashscore.com/index.php/landing

 Activity:

              Convert Graph to Data Matrix Exercise (see the Activities handout). Due Thursday, February 9th.


7 - Cohesive subgroups, affiliations, and network positions and roles

Consideration of these topics serves as a way to further explore structural equivalence, including discussions on crisscrossing, role network position, cohesion, and homogeneity in network analysis.

Required readings:

-Barabasi. Chapters – The Sixth Link, The Seventh Link. Afterlink.


-Kadushin, Chapters 2 and 3 (review).


-Feld, S. J. (1991). Why your friends have more friends than you do. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 1464-1477.


-McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & M Cook, J.M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Rev. Sociol., 27, 415–44.


-Zuckerman, E.W. & Jost, J.T. (2001). What makes you think you’re so popular? Self-evaluation maintenance and the subjective side of the “friendship paradox.” Social Psychology Quarterly, 64(3), 207-223.

Recommended Readings:

-Kossinets, G. & Watts, D.J. (2009). Origins of homophily in an evolving social network. American Journal of Sociology, 115(2), 405-450.


-Valente, T.W. (2003). Social network influences on adolescent substance use: An introduction. Connections, 25(2), 11-16.


-Bearman, P.S., Moody, J.M., & Stovel, K. (2004). Chains of affection: The structure of adolescent romantic and sexual networks. American Journal of Sociology, 110(1), 44-91.


-Young, J.T.N. (2011). How do they ‘End Up Together’? A social network analysis of self-control, homophily, and adolescent relationships. J. Quant Criminol, 27, 251–273

Activity:

                Data Entry Exercise (see Activities handout). Due Thursday, February 23rd.

 

8 - "The awakening internet" and its influence in everyday life

We compare differences and similarities in the organized and fragmented Webs and networks through a discussion of search engine technologies, computer and social networks, experts and authorities, and the “strength of weak ties” and structural holes.

Required readings:

-Barabasi. Chapters. The Eighth Link, The Ninth Link, The Tenth Link. The Eleventh Link, The Twelfth Link, The Thirteenth Link, The Fourteenth Link.


-Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360-1380.


-Shields, N., & Kane, J. (2011). Social and psychological correlates of Internet Use among college students. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 5(1), article 2.

Recommended readings:

-Kleinberg, J. & Lawrence, S. (2001). The structure of the web. Science, 294, 1849.


-Reuell, P. (2011). Nice guys can finish first: Social networks aid cooperation, punish opposition. Retrieved from http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/?p=95822&utm_source


-Adams, R.G., Blieszner, R., & DeVries, B. (2000). Definitions of friendship in the third age: Age, gender, and study location effects. Journal of Aging Studies, 14(1), 117-33.

Resources:

-A Little History of the World Wide Web. Go to:
http://www.w3.org/History.html.


-Jonas, J. & Harper, J. Effective counterterrorism and the limited role of predictive data mining. December 11, 2006. See:
http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6784

Activity:

                Six Degrees of Separation. Showtime and classroom exercise on the Small World Problem (see description at the end of the syllabus). Prepare a brief 3-4 page write-up describing your findings and citing evidence. Due Thursday, March 8th.

 

9 - "Three types of epidemics" and the influence of tipping points

How do innovations affect use patterns through networks?   We examine examples of viruses and fads and how just a few people given the right context can influence a population through small networks.

Required readings:

-Barabasi. Chapters. The Fourteenth Link. The Last Link.


-Kadushin, Chapter 9, Coda.


-Rogers, E.M. (1976). New product adoption and diffusion. Journal of Consumer Research, 2, 290-301

.
-Christakis, N., & Fowler, J.H. (2007). The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. The New England Journal of Medicine, 357, 370-379.


-Centola, D. (2011). An experimental study of homophily in the adoption of health behavior. Science, 334, 1269-1272.


-Gladwell, M. (1996). The tipping point. The New Yorker.


-Christakis N.A, Fowler J.H, 2010 Social network sensors for early detection of contagious outbreaks. PLoS ONE 5(9): e12948.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012948.

Recommended readings:

-Ryan, B. & Gross, N.C. (1943). The diffusion of hybrid seed corn in two Iowa communities. Rural Sociology, 8(1), 15-24.

-Coleman, J.S., Katz, E., & Menzel, H. (1957). The diffusion of an innovation among physicians. Sociometry, 20(4), 253-270.


-Rosnow, R.L. & Foster, E.K. (2005). The unraveling of rumour and gossip. Arts & Opinion, 7(5), 1-6.


10 - Students Presentations of small group research reports

Presentations should be interesting and enjoyable. Do not read your report. Prepare handouts or preferably use a PowerPoint presentation. If necessary, ask me to make photocopies for your handouts for class members. Oral presentations will occur on or before March 16th. The final research reports written in APA style and format are due on Friday, March 18th.

Note:   Student interest may necessitate spending more or less time on certain topics, thus requiring a rearrangement of the topics or time schedules presented above.

Acknowledgements: I wish to extend my gratitude to Professor Robert A. Hanneman, Department of Sociology at the University of California, Riverside for extending me permission to use some of the exercises he uses in his course, Social Network Analysis. Other instructors, too numerous to mention here, have provided me with advice and suggestions for exercises and readings; I wish to extend my appreciation to them for their assistance and thoughtfulness.

References:

- Barabasi, A-L, (2003). Linked. New York: Plume.

- Knoke, D. & Kuklinski, J. H. (1982). Network analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

- Sherif, M. & Sherif, C. (1969). Social psychology. New York: Harper & Row.

A Professor’s Manifesto

Here is what I expect from students: You will treat everyone in the class, including the professor, with the respect due to all human beings. You will attend every class, give your full attention to the material, and conduct yourself in an appropriate manner. You will agree to do the work outlined in the syllabus on time. You will acknowledge that previous academic preparation (e.g., writing skills) will affect your performance in this course. You will acknowledge that your perception of effort, by itself, is not enough to justify a distinguished grade. You will not plagiarize or otherwise steal the work of others. You will not make excuses for your failure to do what you ought. You will accept the consequences of your actions.

Here is what students can expect from me: I will treat you with the respect due to all human beings. I will know your name and treat you as an individual. I will not discriminate against you because of your identity or your well-informed viewpoints. I will manage the class in a professional manner; that may include educating you in appropriate behavior. I will prepare carefully for every class. I will begin and end class on time. I will teach only in areas of my professional expertise. If I do not know something, I will say so. I will conduct scholarly research and publication with the aim of making myself a more informed teacher. I will return your assignments quickly with detailed feedback. I will pursue the maximum punishment for plagiarism, cheating, and other violations of academic integrity. I will keep careful records of your attendance, performance, and progress. If I am absent from class for personal or professional reasons, I will make every effort to find a qualified colleague who will be willing to teach and supervise the topic for discussion and review. I will investigate every excuse for nonattendance of classes and noncompletion of assignments. I will make myself available to you for advising. I will maintain confidentiality concerning your performance. I will provide you with professional support and write recommendations for you if appropriate. I will be honest with you. Your grade will reflect the quality of your work and nothing else. I am interested in your feedback about the class, but I am most interested in what you learned.
(I express my gratitude to a Thomas H. Benton - a pseudonym - for providing the essential information described in the “Manifesto.” The original article can be found in the Chronicle of Higher Education, June 9, 2006).