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Psychology 505

Seminar in Social Psychology

Fall Quarter, 2014

Tuesday, Thursday - 1:00 to 2:50 PM

Instructor -- Joseph E. Trimble, PhD, Distinguished University Professor, Professor of Psychology. Office: AIC 594. Telephone: 360.650.3058. Office hours will be discussed in class and posted on my office door.
Readings -- Selected readings collected from journal articles and book chapters are listed below under each of the six topic areas. I will e-mail you copies of all of the required and recommended readings.
Required Textbook -- (available in the Western Associated Students Bookstore or
through an Internet book seller)

Prerequisites-- Admission to the MS or MEd program in psychology or permission from the instructor.

Course Themes
“They say you are not you except in terms of (your) relation to other people. If there weren’t any other people there wouldn’t be any you because what you do, which is what you are, only has meaning in relation to other people.”
Robert Penn Warren, All the King’s Men (cited in Knoke & Kuklinski, 1982)
“Amid the seeming confusion of our mysterious world, individuals are so nicely adjusted to a system, and systems to one another, that, by stepping outside for a moment, a man exposes himself to a fearful risk of losing his place forever.”
-Nathaniel Hawthorne, Wakefield (cited in Knoke & Kuklinski, 1982)
“Networks are present everywhere … because everything is connected to everything else.” -Albert-László Barabási (2003)
“A relevant social psychology should be concerned with the study of social movements produced by social problems, for it is these movements that are groping toward the shape of the future.
-Muzafer Sherif (1970, p. 156)

Psychology 505
The purpose of this course is to provide a graduate-level overview of contemporary social psychology. Compared with a typical undergraduate introductory social psychology course, this course will cover fewer topics but will examine these topics in much greater detail following the principles, theories, and methods associated with the rapidly changing field.  This will be accomplished by reading both review and empirical articles and chapters focusing on historical and contemporary empirical and theoretical developments.  Furthermore, this seminar will review social psychology topics with particular consideration given to: 1) the context of culture; and 2) the adaptive advantages of social behavior.
Student and Course Learning Objectives.
Upon successfully completing the course, students will be able to:

Knowledge and Understanding
1). Identify and describe the basic components of “social psychology.”
2). Discuss alternative conceptions of social psychology and the role played by others in influencing an individual’s behavior, world view, attitudes, feelings, and values.
3). Recognize and explain how social psychological theories explain the influence of our relationships in everyday life.  
4). Identify and explain at least five sociological and psychological theories that explain how individuals form relationships in groups.
5). Describe and illustrate basic social psychological principles used to form and maintain social groups.
6). Distinguish among a range of social psychological constructs and factors and explain the influence each have in the formation and maintenance of intergroup thoughts, action, and emotion.

Skills
7). Analyze and critique scientific research articles that describe various social psychological topics.
8). Demonstrate an understanding of how well “western” social psychological principles and research hold up in other cultures.
9). In collaboration with others conduct a small-scale research project exploring selected characteristics, qualities, traits, or peculiarities associated with a selected topic social psychology.

Synthesis
10). Reflect and write about social psychological principles as they relate to your personal life experiences.
11). Identify and organize a range of social psychological constructs and theoretical elements for use in forming relationships with others.

Student Evaluation
In addition to attending seminar sessions regularly and doing the reading, the course requires you to work through exercises and activities and present the findings to the class, be responsible for leading discussions during selected class periods  (may involve doing additional readings), prepare and submit definitions of social psychological terms, and submit a small group research project report at the end of the quarter.

Submission of work
Please submit electronic copies of all your written work to my e-mail address. Alternatively, I will accept written assignments in hard-copy form, although I prefer the electronic versions. I tend to use Turnitin to evaluate all submitted papers and assignments (see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turnitin).

Extensions and Incompletes
No extensions are permitted on the definitions, final project papers, and exploratory exercises. Extensions for the final research paper must be requested in advance and will be granted with reluctance. I strongly discourage you from taking incomplete grades in this course; as a rule, taking incompletes will delay your progress through your studies. While I realize one often can produce a better research report by taking more time to produce it, it is preferable to produce a draft within a given time frame, receive commentary, and improve the work later through revision. In summary, student performance in the seminar and achievement of the student learning outcomes will be evaluated using the rubrics and the following criteria: 
- Consistent regular attendance. More than 4 uninformed or unexcused absences will result in no credit for the course; 
- Active informed participation in seminar discussions and activities that also include respect for, support of, and cooperation with others in the class; 
- A willingness to examine personal experiences as they relate to seminar topics; and 
- Proficient and demonstrated knowledge of the assigned readings.
In addition, by the end of the quarter seminar participants must complete a portfolio containing:
1). Definitions of social psychological terms, concepts, and theories. - 35 points. Due October 17th
2). One 15-20 minute oral presentation based on the content and theme of one or more of the selected readings for the course. Articles less than 3 pages are not eligible for this activity. Presentations begin the third week of the quarter. – 25 points
3). Research Demonstration Project. Conduct a short social psychological research activity. Submit a brief summary of your findings and analysis including figures if applicable. Results will be presented in class at the time we are discussing the topic. I will provide you with a list of the projects for you to consider. – 30 points.
4). One 8-10 page or more small group research paper dealing with an acceptable topic in the field. The activity includes presentation of the research project including a report following conventional APA research report writing protocols (the final report on the project is due on December 12th). – 70 points. Oral report due on December 4th.
5). Lead a Discussion. Students will select an article related to their own research interest or other professional interest that is related to a unit’s readings. Students should be prepared to summary the basic components of the article in sufficient detail so we will be able to understand it and learn from the presentation. Students will also prepare two discussion questions that follow from their article. —20 points.
6). Weekly essay question summary and questions activity. – 90 points (10 per essay).
7). Classroom participation in discussion of the readings and topics. – 15 points.

Essay Questions
During the quarter you are to read several articles, chapters, and sections of the assigned books; the readings and assignments are listed for you in sections of this syllabus. After reading each article or assigned readings you will select four (4) questions from the list of questions for the particular unit and answer each one carefully and accurately. If appropriate you should include your thoughts and observations about the question. Your essay answers are to be submitted to me on each Sunday by 5:00PM each week of the quarter beginning October 5thand ending on November 30th. Summarize your answers and thoughts into 3-5 pages. I will carefully review your answers and observations and return the scored rubric to you at the next seminar meeting. I will make comments on the back of the rubric to assist you in clarifying your observations and thoughts. In addition, at the end of the essays students will submit one question for discussion relevant to the week’s readings. The assignment is designed to get students thinking about the readings and a way to stimulate discussion.

Grading
Grades will be based on the conduct and quality of the exercises, the definitions, the quality of your weekly essays, the final research paper, and the group project report and presentation submitted at the end of the term, with greater emphasis on the report and presentation. I will factor in what I learn about your knowledge of social psychological concepts and methods from discussions in class and observations about your work on the exploratory exercises. Point distributions vary according to the criteria described in detail in the assessment Rubricsprepared for this seminar; they will be distributed in class. Final letter grades will be based on one’s total point accumulation at the end of the quarter. The point distribution is as follows: 

A =     271-285
B =     242-270
C =     214-241
D =     185-213
F =      184 or less

Each paper and activity will be evaluated on several dimensions including the substantive and the mechanical components (refer to the Rubrics). The substantive dimension includes such features as writing style, evidence of considerable work expended, clarity, and ease of reading. The mechanical dimension includes such things as spelling, grammar, and proper sentence structure. Students are required to follow the style guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) for the small group research assignment. A guide for the APA style is available at ‑ http://www.psywww.com/resource/apacrib.htm.

Small Group Research Project
Working with one or two of your classmates, replicate a social psychological research study; you are free to make adjustments in the design and conduct of the study to suit your sampling needs and the conduct of the research. You will select a study from one of the following books: 
- Bickman, L., & Henchy, T. (Eds.). (1972). Beyond the laboratory: Field research in social psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. 
- MacDonald, R.R., & Schellenberg, J.A. (1971). Selected readings and projects in social psychology. New York: Random House. 
- McClintock, C.G. (Ed.). (1972). Experimental social psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. 
- Rosnow, R.L. & Robinson, E.J. (Eds.). (1967). Experiments in persuasion. New York: Academic Press.
- Swindle, P.G. (1968). Experiments in social psychology. New York: Academic Press. 
The books are on limited reserve in the Wilson Library.

Schedule of Seminar Activities
The following outline contains the general topics and approximate time allotted for discussion and review of assigned readings. At times, it’s possible that guest lecturers will be invited to the seminar to present and discuss relevant and appropriate material intended to supplement seminar activities. Additionally, PowerPoint presentations will be used to complement discussions. The seminar is organized around eight basic units and corresponding parts or sub-units. Assigned and recommended readings are listed for each section. Students should familiarize themselves with the outline and the weekly activities, read the material in advance of the class session, and are prepared to discuss the readings during class and record summaries and observations in the weekly essay paper. All articles and chapters will be distributed to you through your e-mail address.

WEEK(S) TOPICS AND THEMES

1 -- What is Social Psychology? The unit offers a working definition of social psychology as the study of the influences that people have upon the beliefs or behavior of others. A general orientation to the field and its methods is provided, including several illustrations of the broad range of questions and real-world phenomena that are of central interest to social psychologists. Key issues and questions include: How are people influenced by one another? Why do they accept social influence—that is, what’s in it for them? What are the variables that increase or decrease the effectiveness of social influence? How does one person come to like another person? How does a person develop prejudices against an ethnic or racial group? Is prejudice akin to liking—but in reverse—or does it involve an entirely different set of psychological processes?
Required Readings:
- Aronson, E. The Social Animal. Chapter 1.
- Aronson, E. (1977). Research in social psychology as a leap of faith. Personality and
Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, 190-195.
- Gergen, K.J. (1973). Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 26, 309-320.
- Goethals, G.R. (2007). A century of social psychology: Individuals, ideas, and investigations. In M. Hogg & J. Cooper (Eds.), The Sage handbook of social psychology (pp.3-23). Thousands Oaks, CA; Sage.
Recommended Readings:
Sears (1986). College sophomores in the laboratory: Influences of a narrow data 
base on social psychology's view of human nature Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 51, 515- 530.
- Henrich, J., Heine, S.J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 61-83. (also see abridged version).
-- Webb, E.J., Campbell, D.T., Schwartz, R.D., & Sechrest, L. (1966). Unobtrusive measures: Nonreactive research in the social sciences. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally. Chapter 1, “Approximations to knowledge.”
- Ostrom, E. (2006).  The value-added of laboratory experiments for the study of institutions and common-pool resources. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 61, 149-163. 
-- Studebaker, C.A., Robbennolt, J.K., Penrod, S.D., Pathak-Sharma, M.K., Groscup, J.L., & Devenport, J.L. (202). Studying pretrial publicity effects: New methods for improving ecological validity and testing external validity. Law & Human Behavior, 26,1, 19-41.
More Resources:
-- Social Psychology Network – http://www.socialpsychology.org/ 
-- Society for Personality and Social Psychology – http://www.spsp.org/ 
-- Society of the Psychological Study of Culture, Ethnicity, and Race – http://division45.org/

2-3 – Conformity: The unit focuses on the topic of conformity, defined as a change in a person’s behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or group of people. Most people are ambivalent about the merits of conformity—nonconformists or individualists are valued, while deviates and oddballs are scorned. On the other hand, conformists and “sheep” are devalued, while the “team player” is lauded. When the chips are down, however, we tend to value conformity over nonconformity. Acts of compliance, while often temporary, can have consequences that are far from trivial. If group member­ship increases an individual’s potential to survive, favorable standing in a group gained by conformity to the established social norms should be desired. Therefore, mimicry of the behavior of members to maintain good standing in a group may not only be ­desired but also be rooted physiologically in our species.
Required Readings: 
- Aronson, E. The Social Animal. Chapter 2.
- Burger, J.M. (2009). Replicating Milgram: Would people still obey today? American Psychologist, 64, 1-11.
Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 371-378.
- Baumrind, D. (1964). Some thoughts on ethics of research: After reading Milgram's "Behavioral study of obedience." American Psychologist, 19, 421-423.
- Milgram, S. (1964). Issues in the study of obedience: A reply to Baumrind. American Psychologist, 19, 848-852.
-- Carlson, H.M.  (2007). The devil made them do it?  Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 7, 247-249.
Recommended Readings:
- Milgram, S. (1969). Note on the drawing power of crowds of different size. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 79-82.
- Kelman, H.C. (1973). Violence without moral restraint: Reflections on the dehumanization of victims and victimizers. Journal of Social Issues, 29(4), 25-61.
--Gray, P. (2013, October 19). Why Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment isn’t in my textbook: The results of the famous Stanford Prison Experiment have a trivial explanation. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/201310/why-zimbardos-prison-experiment-isn-t-in-my-textbook 
- Ratnesa, R. (2011, July/August). The menace within. Stanford Magazine. Retrieved from http://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=40741 
- Whitbourne, S.K. (2013, July 20). The rarely told true story of Zimbardo’s prison experiment. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday/blog/fulfillment-any-age/201307/the-rarely-toldtrue- story-zimbardo-s-prison-experiment 
- Griggs, R.A. (2014). Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in introductory 
psychology textbooks. Teaching of Psychology, 4,3, 195-203.
-- Bond, R., & Smith, P.B.  (1996).  Culture and conformity:  A meta-analysis of studies using Asch’s (1952, 1956) line judgment task.  Psychological Bulletin, 119, 111-137.
-- Jetten, J., & Mols, F. (2014). 50:50 hindsight: Appreciating anew the contributions of Milgram’s obedience experiments. Journal of Social Issues, 70,3, 587-602.**
(The next series of articles should be read in the order they’re listed)
- Reicher, S., Haslam, S. A. (2006). Rethinking the psychology of tyranny: The BBC prison study. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 1-40.
- Zimbardo, P. G. (2006). Commentary. On rethinking the psychology of tyranny: The BBC prison study. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 47-53.
- Haslam, S.A., & Reicher, S. (2006). Response. Debating the psychology of tyranny:
Fundamental issues of theory, perspective and science. British Journal of Social
Psychology, 45, 55-63.
(**Note. The entire edition of Volume 70, Issue 3 (September 2014) of the Journal of Social Issues is devoted to: “Milgram at 50: Exploring the Enduring Relevance of Psychology's most Famous Studies.”).
Activities:
What do people mean when they say that a behavior was performed intentionally? To learn more about the concept of intentional action go to: http://www.unc.edu/~knobe/experiments.html 
Interact is a computer program that describes what people might do in a given situation, how they might respond emotionally to events, and how they might attribute qualities or new identities to themselves and other “interactants” in order to account for unexpected happenings. A web-based version of the Interact program illustrating many principles of Affect Control Theory can be found at: http://www.indiana.edu/~socpsy/ACT/interact.htm
More Resources:
-- Stanley Milgram Web Site – http://www.stanleymilgram.com/ 
-- Influence at Work – http://www.influenceatwork.com/ 
-- International Cultic Studies Association -- http://www.csj.org/

4 -- Social Cognition: Social cognition refers to a broad class of processes and influences that affect how people make sense out of the social world. Under the right conditions, we are capable of behaving like scientists in our everyday thinking—seeking out and evaluating information in a systematic and rational manner. More commonly, however, our perceptions and judgments are subject to a variety of biases and other distorting influences. It is important to identify and understand these influences because, to a very large extent, our perceptions of the social world play a central role in determining our behavior. The issues covered in this unit include: the social context, categorization, the relationship between beliefs and behavior, self-bias, attribution theory, schema theory, decision formation, and attitude and belief formation.
Required Readings:
- Aronson, E. The Social Animal. Chapter 4.
- Shirky, C. (2008). “It’s not information overload. It’s filter failure.” Presentation given at Web 2.0 Expo on 9-19-08 and viewable at http://web2expo.blip.tv/file/1277460/ 
Hastorf, A., & Cantril, H. (1954). They saw a game: A case study. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49, 129-134.
- Balcetis, E., Dunning, D., & Miller, R.L (2008).  Do collectivists know themselves better than individualists? Cross-cultural studies of the holier than thou phenomenon.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1252-1267.
- DeCremer, D., Pillutla, M. M., & Folmer, C.R. (2011). How important is an apology to you? Forecasting errors in evaluating the value of apologies. Psychosocial Science, 22, 45–48.
- Eibach, R.P., Libby, L.K., & Gilovich, T.D. (2003).When change in the self is mistaken for change in the world. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 84(5), 917–931.
Recommended Readings:
- Lemm, K.M., Dabady, M., & Banji, M.R. (2005). Gender picture priming: It works with
denotative and connotative primes. Social Cognition, 23, 3, 218-241.
- Rasinski, H.M., Geers, A.L., & Czopp, A.M. (2013). “I guess what he said wasn’t that bad:” Dissonance in non-confronting targets of prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39,859-869.
- Uziel, L. (2010). Look at me, I’m happy and creative: The effect of impression management on behavior in social presence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1591–1603.
- Eibach, R.P., Libby, L.K., & Gilovich, T.D. (2003).When change in the self is mistaken for change in the world. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 84(5), 917–931.
- Begue, L., Bushman, B. J., Giancola, P.R., Subra, G., & Rosset, E. (2010). “There is no such thing as an accident,” Especially when people are drunk. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1301–1304.
- Blank, H., Musch, J., & Pohl, R.F. (2007). Hindsight bias: On being wise after the event. Social Cognition, 25(1), 1–9. (NOTE: This is a special issue of Social Cognition focusing on the hindsight bias and organized around four main questions: What is it? Why is it important? Does it apply to everybody? How can it be explained?).
More Resources:
-- Counterfactual Research News -- http://dheise.andrews.edu/Content/leadership/comps/6b/1biblio/Counterfactual2.htm 
-- Nonverbal Communication -- http://www.nonverbalgroup.com/

5-6 -- Attitude Measurements, Attitude Change, Mass Communication, Propaganda, and Persuasion: The unit covers the specific factors and social psychological processes underlying effective persuasion and attitude change, as well as the broader implications of living in an age of mass communication. Media influence is pervasive, affecting our opinions, attitudes, and behavior, regardless of whether direct attempts to persuade are involved. What characteristics of the communicator contribute to effective persuasion? What characteristics of the message serve to increase its persuasive appeal? What characteristics of the audience are important in persuasion? How do we measure attitude change?
Required Readings:
- Aronson, E. The Social Animal. Chapter 3.
- Thurstone, L.L. (1928). Attitudes can be measured. American Journal of Sociology, 33, 529-54.
- Sherif, M. (1967). Social interaction: Process and products. Chicago. IL: Aldine. Chapters on ”Some needed concepts in the study of attitudes”; “The social judgment-involvement approach; and “The own categories procedure in attitude research” (chapters16-18).
- Makosky, V.P. (1985). Identifying major techniques of persuasion. Teaching of Psychology, 12, 42-43.
- -- Bohner, G., & Dickel, N. (2011). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of
Psychology, 63, 391-417.
Recommended Readings:
- Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140, 1–55.
- Han, S., & Shavitt, S. (1994). Persuasion and culture: Advertising appeals in individualistic and collectivistic societies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 326-350.
- Cialdini, R. (2003). Crafting normative messages to protect the environment. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(4), 105-109.
- Smith, S.M., & Petty, R.E. (1996). Message framing and persuasion: A message processing analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 257-268.
- Han, S., & Shavitt, S. (1994). Persuasion and culture: Advertising appeals in individualistic and collectivistic societies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 326-350.
- Bem, S.L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155-162
- Sagarin, B.J., Cialdini, R.B., Rice, W.E., & Serna, S.B. (2002).  Dispelling the illusion of invulnerability: The motivations and mechanisms of resistance to persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 526-541.
- -- Social Measurement, Classification and Scaling, by David R. Heise, Department of
Sociology, Indiana University, provides a relatively advanced analysis of measurement
issues. (see: http://www.indiana.edu/~socpsy/papers/Measurement.htm)
Activities:
Take the scale on affective and cognitive bases of attitudes at: http://www.prenhall.com/divisions/hss/app/social/chap7_1.html and The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory at:http://www.understandingprejudice.org/teach/assign/asi.htm 
Spot The Fake Smile: The experiment is designed to test whether you can spot the difference between a fake smile and a real one. To learn more go to:      
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/smiles/index.shtml 
Subliminal Advertisements: A good way to look at the extreme claims people are making for effects of subliminal self-help tapes is to scan the web. To learn more go to:http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/aronson/chapter7/essay1/deluxe-content.html
More Resources:
-- Theories of Cognitive Consistency – http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/cognitive-dissonance.html 
-- Institute for Propaganda Analysis -- http://www.propagandacritic.com/articles/intro.ipa.html

7  -- Self-Justification: The social-psychological process of self-justification, which involves our tendency to justify our actions, behaviors, and feelings, is the topic of this unit. The main tenets of cognitive dissonance theory are presented briefly and provide a framework for understanding the cognitive and motivational components that underlie self-justification processes. Throughout the unit, the broad implications of the theory are discussed, as well as its application to a multitude of real-world situations and social phenomena. Dissonance or self-justification processes generally occur when we find ourselves acting in a manner that contradicts our beliefs and attitudes—in particular, our conceptions of ourselves as good, decent, wise, and intelligent individuals. To justify our contradictory actions, we tend to change our attitudes or behaviors to make them more consistent with our previous behavior.
Required Readings:
- Aronson, E. The Social Animal. Chapter 5.
- Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J.M. (1959).  Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210.
- Cialdini, R.B., Borden, R.J., Thorne, A., Walker, M.R., & Freeman, S. (1976). Basking in reflective glory. Three (football) field studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 366–375.
- Noordewier, M.K., & Stapel, D.A. (2010). Affects of the unexpected: When inconsistency feels good (or bad). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 642–654.
Recommended Readings:
Prophesy Fail. What happens to a doomsday cult when the world doesn't end? (2011)
Slate. Retrieved from
http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2011/05/prophecy_fail.html 
- Bem, D.J. (1967, June). When saying is believing. Psychology Today, pp. 21–25. (Bem offers an alternative explanation for cognitive dissonance findings.)
- Gerard, H.B. (2006). A retrospective review of Festinger’s “A Theory of Cognitive
Dissonance.” PsycCRITIQUES. American Psychological Association.
Activity:
In the book called If You Give a Mouse a Cookie by Laura Numeroff, a boy gives a mouse a cookie, which then prompts a series of requests on the part of the mouse. You can view a video version of it at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j79H2dkFND4 &feature=related. What concepts from the chapter on cognitive dissonance do you see played out between the boy and the mouse through the series of requests and responses? Why does the boy continue to fulfill the requests? What motivates the mouse to clean and is there a connection to cognitive dissonance? Can you think of a research study discussed in the unit that supports this approach? Cite examples.

8 -- Human Aggression: The unit emphasizes theory and research on aggression, which is defined as a behavior aimed at causing harm or pain. A further distinction is also made between hostile aggression, which serves as an end in itself, and instrumental aggression, an act of aggression that is performed as a means to achieving some other goal besides harm or pain. Important issues and questions covered in the chapter include: Is human aggression instinctive? Is aggression necessary for human survival? Does watching, enacting, or fantasizing about aggression serve a useful function in helping people to “blow off steam,” thus preventing future, more extreme acts of violence? Does frustration always lead to aggression? Does watching pornography or violent media increase aggression? Can human aggression be eliminated? 
Required Readings:
- Aronson, E. The Social Animal. Chapter 6.
- DeWall, C.N., Twenge, J.M., Gitter, S.A., &  Baumeister, R.F.(2009). It's the thought that counts: The role of hostile cognition in shaping aggressive responses to social exclusion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 45-59.
- Bandura, Albert (1965). Influence of models' reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1(6): 589–595.
- Anderson, C.A., & Huesmann, L.R. (2003).  Human aggression: A social-cognitive view. In M.A. Hogg & J. Cooper (eds.), The Sage Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 296-312). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Recommended Readings:
- Anderson, C.A.; Bushman, B.J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and pro-social behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science 12 (5), 353–359.
Coyne, S.M., Archer, J., & Eslea, M. (2006). We're not friends anymore! Unless ...": The frequency and harmfulness of indirect, relational, and social aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 294-307.
- Josephson, W.L. (1987). Television violence and children's aggression: Testing the priming, social script, and disinhibition predictions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology53, 882-890.
- Bushman, B.J. (2005). Violence and sex in television programs do not sell products in advertisements. Psychological Science, 16 (9), 702–708.
- Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2007). Measuring the strength of the effect of violent media on aggression. American Psychologist, 62 (3), 253–254.
More Resources:
-- Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse -- http://www.mincava.umn.edu/-- 
-- National Consortium on Violence Research -- http://www.ncovr.heinz.cmu.edu/ 
-- International Society for Research on Aggression – http://www.israsociety.com/ 
-- Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict, and Violence -- http://www.peacepsych.org/

9 -- Prejudice and Stereotypes: Prejudice refers to a hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group based on generalizations derived from faulty or incomplete information. Such generalizations are based on stereotypes, which result from the tendency to assign identical characteristics to any person in a group, regardless of the actual variation among members of that group. This unit examines the social-psychological processes involved in stereotyping and prejudice, as well as other causal factors associated with prejudiced attitudes and behavior. In addition, strategies for reducing prejudice are explored.
Required Readings:
- Aronson, E. The Social Animal. Chapter 7.
- Sherif, M. (1956). Experiments in group conflict. Scientific American, 195, 5, 54-58.
- Trimble, J.E. (1988). Stereotypic images, American Indians and prejudice. In P. Katz & D. Taylor (Eds.), Toward the elimination of racism: Profiles in controversy (pp. 181-202). New York, NY: Pergamon.
- Collins, E.C., Biernat, M., Eidelman, S. (2009). Stereotypes in the communication and translation of person impressions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 4, 368-374.  
- Steele, C., & Aronson, E. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797-811.
- Schmader, T. (2010). Stereotype threat deconstructed. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 14‐18.
- Gamst, G.C., Liang, C.T.H., & Der-Karabetian, A. (2011). Handbook of multicultural measures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Chapter 5. Racism- and Prejudice-Related Measures.
Recommended Readings:
- Amodio, D.M., & Devine, P.G. (2006). Stereotyping and evaluation in implicit race bias: Evidence for independent constructs and unique effects on behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 652-661.
- Czopp, A.M. (2010). Studying is lame when he got game: Racial stereotypes and the discouragement  of Black student-athletes from schoolwork. Social Psychology of Education, 13, 485-498.
- Blanton, H., & Jaccard, J. (2008). Unconscious racism: A concept in pursuit of a measure. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 277.297.
- Correll, J., Park, B., Judd, C.M. Wittenbrink, B., Sadler, M.S., & Keesee, T. (2007).  Across the thin blue line: Police officers and racial bias in the decision to shoot. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 92,1006-1023.  
- Fryberg, S.A., Markus, H.R., Oyserman, D., & Stone, J.M. (2008). Warrior chiefs and Indian princesses: The psychological consequences of American Indian mascots. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 30, 208-218. 
- Sinclair, L., & Kunda, Z. (2000). Motivated stereotyping of women: She's fine if she praised me but incompetent if she criticized me. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1329‐1342.
- Greenberg, J., & Kosloff, S. (2008). Terror management theory: Implications for understanding prejudice, stereotyping, intergroup conflict, and political attitudes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2/5, 1881-1894.
- Payne, B. K. (2006). Weapon Bias: Split‐Second Decisions and Unintended Stereotyping. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 287‐291.
- Blanton, H., & Jaccard, J. (2008). Unconscious racism: A concept in pursuit of a measure. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 277-297.
Activities:
Check out Project Implicit at: https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/ and
The Jigsaw Classroom at: http://www.jigsaw.org/ and Test Your Native IQ at: http://www.understandingprejudice.org/nativeiq/ and
Can You Avoid Segregation. To learn more go to the following Internet address and complete the activity: http://www.understandingprejudice.org/segregation/

10 -- Liking, Loving and Interpersonal Sensitivity: The unit examines a broad range of social-psychological processes and factors that influence why people like each other. The merits of the reward theory of attraction—that we like those whose attributes or behavior are in some way rewarding to us—are explored, as well as its limitations in covering the full spectrum of phenomena associated with interpersonal attraction. In addition, the characteristics of various forms of attraction and attachment, such as liking and loving, are discussed. Finally, the chapter addresses some of the problems in communication that crop up in long-term, close relationships. Strategies for enhancing communication and intimacy in such relationships are explored in detail.
Required Readings:
- Aronson, E. The Social Animal. Chapter 8.
- Snyder, M., Tanke, E.D., & Berscheid, E. (1977). Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35,9, 656-666.
- Byrne, D., Clore, G.L., & Smeaton, G. (1986). The attraction hypothesis: Do similar attitudes affect anything? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1167-1170.
- Whitchurch, E.R., Wilson, T.D., & Gilbert, D.T. (2011). "He loves me, he loves me not . . .": Uncertainty can increase romantic attraction.  Psychological Science, 22, 172-175.
- Weaver, J.R., & Bosson, J.K.  (2011). I feel like I know you: Sharing negative attitudes of others promotes feelings of familiarity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 481-491.
- Aron, A. Paris, M., & Aron, E. N. (1995) Falling in love: Prospective studies of self-concept change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1102–1112.
Recommended Readings:
Janssens, K., Pandelaere, M., Van den Bergh, B., Millet, K., Lens, I., & Roe, K. (2011). Can buy me love: Mate attraction goals lead to perceptual readiness for status products. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 254-258. 
- Acevedo, B.P., & Aron, A. (2009). Does a long-term relationship kill romantic love? Review of General Psychology, 13, 50-65. 
- Diamond, L.M., Hicks, A.M., Otter-Henderson, K.D. (2008). Every time you go away: Changes in affect, behavior, and physiology associated with travel-related separations from romantic partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 385-403.
- Overall, N.C., Fletcher, G.J.O., & Simpson, J.A. (2010). Helping each other grow: Romantic partner support, self-improvement, and relationship quality. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1496-1513. 
- Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P.R., Bar-On, N., & Ein-Dor, T.. (2010). The pushes and pulls of close relationships: Attachment insecurities and relational ambivalence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 450-468.
More Resources:
-- Relationships and Social Cognition Lab -- http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~rascl/ 
-- International Association for Relationship Research -- http://www.iarr.org/
Student presentations of small group research reports. Presentations should be interesting and enjoyable. Do not read your report. Prepare handouts or preferably use a PowerPoint presentation. If necessary, ask me to make photocopies for your handouts for class members. Oral presentations will occur on December 4th..  The final research reports written in APA style and format are due on December 12th.
Note: Student interest may necessitate spending more or less time on certain topics, thus requiring a rearrangement of the topics or time schedules presented above.
Acknowledgements: I wish to extend my gratitude to many social psychology instructors, colleagues, and friends, too numerous to mention here, who provided me with advice and suggestions for the exercises and readings listed in the syllabus; I wish to extend my appreciation to them for their assistance, kindness, and thoughtfulness. The materials made available to me at the Social Psychology Network (http://www.socialpsychology.org/) maintained by Scott Plous at Wesleyan University were especially useful and helpful.
References:
- - Barabási, A-L. (2003). Linked: How everything is connected to everything else and what It means for business, science, and everyday life. New York: Penguin.
- Knoke, D. & Kuklinski, J.H. (1982). Network analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
- Sherif, M. (1970). On the relevance of social psychology. American Psychologist, 25, 144-156.

A Professor’s Manifesto:
Here is what I expect from students: You will treat everyone in the class, including the professor, with the respect due to all human beings. You will attend every class, give your full attention to the material, and conduct yourself in an appropriate manner. You will agree to do the work outlined in the syllabus on time. You will acknowledge that previous academic preparation (e.g., writing skills) will affect your performance in this course. You will acknowledge that your perception of effort, by itself, is not enough to justify a distinguished grade. You will not plagiarize or otherwise steal the work of others. You will not make excuses for your failure to do what you ought. You will accept the consequences of your actions.
Here is what students can expect from me: I will treat you with the respect due all human beings. I will know your name and treat you as an individual. I will not discriminate against you because of your identity or your well-informed viewpoints. I will manage the class in a professional manner; that may include educating you in appropriate behavior. I will prepare carefully for every class. I will begin and end class on time. I will teach only in areas of my professional expertise. If I do not know something, I will say so. I will conduct scholarly research and publication with the aim of making myself a more informed teacher. I will return your assignments quickly with detailed feedback. I will pursue the maximum punishment for plagiarism, cheating, and other violations of academic integrity. I will keep careful records of your attendance, performance, and progress. If I am absent from class for personal or professional reasons, I will make every effort to find a qualified colleague to teach and supervise the topic for discussion and review. I will investigate every excuse for nonattendance of classes and noncompletion of assignments. I will make myself available to you for advising. I will maintain confidentiality concerning your performance. I will provide you with professional support and write recommendations for you if appropriate. I will be honest with you. Your grade will reflect the quality of your work and nothing else. I am interested in your feedback about the class, but I am most interested in what you learned.
(I express my gratitude to a Thomas H. Benton - a pseudonym - for providing the essential information described in the “Manifesto.” The original article can be found in the Chronicle of Higher Education, June 9