Phonotactic constraints - prevent certain sound combinations

accidental gaps - combinations allowed by the rules but which don't happen to have a meaning "potential words"   EX:  slib, skraf,  lubb,  zib

Allophonic rules - tell how a phoneme is pronounced in particular environments

/p/, /t/, /k/ -->  aspirated [ph], [th], [kh] in word or stressed syllable initial position

-->  regular [p], [t], [k] after [s] in the same word

-->  non-released [p}], [t}], [k}] in the syllable coda

/s/--> realized everywhere as allophone (phone) [s]

ASSIMILATION RULES - a phonetic feature present in one segment is added to an adjacent segment, making the two more similar

regressive assimilation-feature added in the 1st of two segments

[ )]- nasality in vowels before [m], [n], [N]

[Ú] - half-lengthening of vowels before voiced obstruents

[S]->[SW] - rounding of [S] before rounded vowels

NBA -> MBA (regressive assimilation of bilabial articulation

progressive assimilation-feature added in the 2nd of two segments

[l◊)]- velarization of [l] after back vowels

DISSIMILATION RULES - a phonetic feature present in 2 segments is deleted in one of the segments making them more different.

- deletion of aspiration in [p,t,k] after fricative [s]

Segment addition rules (epenthesis) adding a whole new segment

random:  athlete --> pronounced athalete

systematic: plural /z/ ->/´z/ after another sibilant (s-type sound)

Segment deletion rules (truncation) dropping a whole segment

random:  picture -> pronounced  picher

slow-like -> slowly

systematic:  bomb, lamb ->  pronounced bomm, lamm

hymn, damn -> pronounced himm, damm

Metathesis rule reorders two adjacent segments: 

            ask -> aks           nuclear ->   nucyular